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1. What is cervical cancer

Cervical cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancerous) cells form in the tissues of the cervix.

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a major risk factor for cervical cancer.  

There are usually no signs or symptoms of cervical cancer, but it can be detected at an early stage with regular check-ups., Especially in the presence of aginal bleeding (including bleeding after intercourse),  pelvic pain, pain during intercourse.


2. Tests for the diagnosis of cervical cancer.

  • Physical examination and health history: Examining the body to check for general signs of health, including checking for signs of illness, such as tumors or anything else that seems unusual. There will also be a history of the patient's health habits, as well as past illnesses and treatments.

  • Pelvic examination  : examination of the vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries and rectum. A speculum is inserted into the vagina and the doctor or nurse looks at the vagina and cervix for signs of illness. A Pap smear of the cervix is usually done. The doctor or nurse will also insert one or two oiled fingers of one gloved hand into the vagina and place the other hand on the lower abdomen to feel the size, shape, and position of the uterus and ovaries. The doctor or nurse will also insert a lubricated, gloved finger into the rectum to feel for lumps or abnormal areas.

  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) test: A laboratory test used to check DNA or RNA for certain types of HPV infection. Cells are harvested from the cervix and the DNA or RNA from the cells is tested to see if the infection is caused by a type of HPV that is associated with cervical cancer. This test can be performed using a sample of cells taken during a Pap smear. This test can also be done if the Pap smear results show certain abnormal cells in the cervix.

  • Endocervical curettage : A procedure for collecting cells or tissue from the cervical canal using a curette (spoon-shaped instrument). Tissue samples are taken and checked under a microscope for signs of cancer. Sometimes this procedure is performed at the same time as colposcopy.

  • Colposcopy: A procedure in which a colposcope (illuminated magnifying instrument) is used to check the vagina and cervix for abnormal areas. Tissue samples can be taken with a curette (spoon-shaped instrument) or brush and checked under a microscope for signs of disease.

  • Biopsy : If abnormal cells are found on a Pap test, your doctor may do a biopsy. A tissue sample is cut from the cervix and examined under a microscope by a pathologist to check for signs of cancer. A biopsy, which removes only a small amount of tissue, is usually done in your doctor's office. The woman may need to go to the hospital for a cervical cone biopsy (removal of a larger, tapered sample of cervical tissue).

3. Factors influencing the prognosis of recovery and treatment options.

The prognosis (chance of recovery) depends on the following:

  • Stage  cancer (size  tumors  and it affects part of the cervix or the entire cervix, or whether it has spread to  The lymph nodes  or elsewhere in the body).

  • A type of cervical cancer.

  • Patient age and general health.

  • Whether the patient has a specific type of human papillomavirus (HPV).

  • Does the patient have  AIDS virus  (HIV).

  • Was cancer just now  diagnosed  or  relapsed  (returned).


Treatment options depend on the following:

  • Stage of cancer.

  • A type of cervical cancer.

  • The patient's desire to have children.

  • The age of the patient.


Treatment of cervical cancer during  pregnancy  depends on the stage of the cancer and the stage of pregnancy. For cervical cancer found early or cancer found in the last trimester of pregnancy, treatment may be delayed until the baby is born.

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4. Types of treatment for patients with cervical cancer

Various treatments are available for cervical cancer patients. Some treatments are standard (currently used) and some are in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a scientific study designed to help improve existing treatments or provide information about new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment can become the standard treatment. Patients may want to take part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials are only open to patients who have not yet started treatment.

Five types of standard treatments are used:

1. Operation

Surgery (removal of cancer during surgery) is sometimes used to treat cervical cancer. The following surgical procedures can be used:

  • Conization: a procedure to remove a tissue cone from the cervix and cervical canal. A pathologist examines tissue under a microscope for cancer cells. Conization can be used to diagnose or treat a cervical cancer condition. This procedure is also called a cone biopsy.


The type of conization procedure used depends on where the cancer cells are in the cervix and the type of cervical cancer. Conization can be done in one of the following ways:

  • Cold knife conization : A surgical procedure that uses a scalpel (sharp knife) to remove abnormal tissue or cancer.

  • Loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP): A surgical procedure in which an electric current is passed through a loop of thin wire as a knife to remove abnormal tissue or cancer.

  • Laser surgery: A surgical procedure in which a laser beam (a narrow beam of intense light) is used as a knife to cut bloodless tissue or to remove superficial lesions such as a tumor.

  • Total hysterectomy : Surgery to remove the uterus, including the cervix. If the uterus and cervix are passed out through the vagina, the operation is called vaginal hysterectomy. If the uterus and cervix are removed through a large incision (incision) in the abdomen, the operation is called total abdominal hysterectomy. If the uterus and cervix are removed through a small incision in the abdomen using a laparoscope, the operation is called total laparoscopic hysterectomy.

  • Radical hysterectomy: Surgery to remove the uterus, cervix, part of the vagina, and a large area of ligaments and tissues around these organs. The ovaries, fallopian tubes, or nearby lymph nodes may also be removed.

  • Modified radical hysterectomy : Surgery to remove the uterus, cervix, upper vagina, and the ligaments and tissues that tightly surround these organs. Nearby lymph nodes may also be removed. This type of surgery does not remove as many tissues and / or organs as with radical hysterectomy.

  • Radical trachelectomy: Surgery to remove the cervix, nearby tissues and lymph nodes, and the upper part of the vagina. The uterus and ovaries are not removed.

  • Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy : an operation to remove both ovaries and both fallopian tubes.

  • Exenteration of the pelvis: Surgery to remove the lower part of the colon, rectum, and bladder. The cervix, vagina, ovaries, and nearby lymph nodes are also removed. Artificial holes (stoma) are designed to allow urine and stool to drain from the body into a collection bag. After this surgery, plastic surgery may be required to make an artificial vagina.

2. Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy X-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells or prevent them from growing. There are two types of radiation therapy:

1. External beam radiation therapy uses a device outside the body to direct radiation to cancer. Certain radiation treatments can help prevent radiation from damaging nearby healthy tissue. This type of radiation therapy includes the following:

  • Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT): IMRT is a type of three-dimensional (3-D) radiation therapy that uses a computer to produce images of the size and shape of a tumor. Thin beams of radiation of different intensity (strength) are directed at the tumor at different angles.

2. Internal radiation therapy uses a radioactive substance sealed in needles, seeds, wires or catheters that are inserted directly into or near the tumor.

How radiation therapy is given depends on the type and stage of cancer treatment. External and internal radiation therapy is used to treat cervical cancer and can also be used as palliative therapy to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life.


3. Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells by either killing the cells or stopping them from dividing. When chemotherapy is taken by mouth or injected into a vein or muscle, the drugs enter the bloodstream and can reach cancer cells throughout the body (systemic chemotherapy). When chemotherapy is injected directly into the cerebrospinal fluid, organ or body cavity, such​​ like the abdomen, drugs mainly target cancer cells in these areas (regional chemotherapy).


How chemotherapy is given depends on the type and stage of cancer treatment.


4. Targeted therapy

Targeted therapy is a type of treatment that uses drugs or other substances to target and attack certain cancer cells without harming normal cells.

Monoclonal antibody therapy is a type of targeted therapy that uses antibodies obtained in a laboratory from one type of immune system cell. These antibodies can identify substances on cancer cells or normal substances that can promote the growth of cancer cells. Antibodies attach to substances and kill cancer cells, block their growth, or prevent them from spreading. Monoclonal antibodies are given by infusion. They can be used alone or to carry medications,

toxins or radioactive materials directly to cancer cells.

Bevacizumab is a monoclonal antibody that binds to a protein called vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and can prevent the growth of new blood vessels necessary for tumor growth. Bevacizumab is used to treat metastatic cervical cancer (which has spread to other parts of the body) and recurrent cervical cancer.  

5. Immunotherapy

Immunotherapy is a treatment that uses a patient's immune system to fight cancer. Substances produced by the body or produced in the laboratory are used to enhance, direct, or restore the body's natural defenses against cancer. This type of cancer treatment is also called biotherapy or biological therapy.

Checkpoint inhibitor therapy is a form of immunotherapy.

Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy: PD-1 is a protein on the surface of T cells that helps control the body's immune responses. When PD-1 attaches to another protein, called PDL-1, on a cancer cell, it stops the T cell from killing it. PD-1 inhibitors attach to PDL-1 and allow T cells to kill cancer cells. Pembrolizumab is a type of immune checkpoint inhibitor used to treat recurrent cervical cancer.

Need help?

To organize the treatment of cervical cancer in Turkey, leave a request on the Medikal & Estetik Group website. You will be contacted by a specialized doctor-coordinator who will help you choose the best medical center. Send him your medical records, he will redirect them to the hospital of your choice and request a treatment program.

We will help you organize your trip and stay in touch with you throughout your treatment - from the moment you contact us and even after you return home.

Medikal & Estetik Group is an independent medical service that does not represent the interests of any of the clinics. Patients do not pay for our services - medical centers do it.

Doctors-coordinators will advise you and help you with the choice. Medikal & Estetik Group services are free of charge for you and do not affect the clinic bill.




Basic diagnostics for cervical cancer from $ 943

Biopsy for cervical cancer from $ 450

CT (computed tomography) for cervical cancer from $ 50

PET-CT for cervical cancer from $ 500

Brachytherapy for cervical cancer on request

Hysterectomy with Da Vinci robot for cervical cancer from $ 21,700

Chemotherapy for breast cancer from $ 1200

Chemotherapy for uterine cancer from $ 2000

Chemotherapy for uterine cancer from $ 1500

Cyberknife for cervical cancer from $ 4400

Hysterectomy (removal of the uterus) for cervical cancer from $ 2000

Radiation therapy for rectal cancer  on request

Radiation therapy for cervical cancer from $ 3000

Wertheim's operation for cervical cancer from $ 24,000

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